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You Don't Really Expect Me to Sign That, Do You?


The following are examples of what educational needs, Specialized Direction Instruction (SDI), and goals could look like for a scholar with Autism. This does not have to be an Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or Visual Basic (VB) classroom!

The following is just so you can get a taste of what should be individualized in the IEP.

Let’s first define:

  1. Educational needs

  2. SDI’s (SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTIONS) and

  3. Goals

  • Educational needs

Academic, behavioral, functional, or social needs that interfere with proficient knowledge and skill acquisition, retention, expression, and application which are required to address gaps and accelerate progress toward grade level standards and provide the scholar access to the general curriculum.

  • SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTIONS

Specially designed instruction is provided to meet the individualized needs of scholars with disabilities and are documented in their IEP. They are necessary to address gaps and accelerate academic, behavioral, and functional progress toward grade level standards and provide the scholar access to the curriculum. SDIs are a service, not a place, and are not defined by where they occur. The SDI may change over time so it is very important to be aware of how the SDI effectiveness will be measured and monitored. Academic, behavioral, functional, social, or academic needs that interfere with proficient knowledge and skill acquisition, retention, expression, and application are addressed by SDIs and thus are required to access the curriculum. SDIs are not an accommodation and/or modification. Specially designed instruction is delivered in a highly structured manner with frequent progress monitoring.

Supplementary aids and services are aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable scholars with disabilities to be educated with scholars without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate. Their purpose is to support scholars with disabilities as active participants with scholars without disabilities as well as to enable their access to the general curriculum. This includes modification to the general curriculum.

Supplementary aids and services should:

  • Be available to all scholars who need them.

  • Be designed to provide meaningful educational benefit.

  • Be provided in a manner that avoids stigmatizing scholars.

  • Be provided in a good faith effort to address behavioral issues with positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to promote increased participation of scholars with disabilities in regular education environments or other less restrictive environments.

  • Address modified curriculum, teacher training, effective behavior support, and provision of an aide, if appropriate.

  • Address Collaborative activities.

  • Co-planning and team meetings time

  • Instructional arrangements including co-teaching and paraeducator support.

  • Meeting times for parental collaboration

  • Professional development

  • Team members support related to assistive technology.

  • Address Instructional activities and environment.

  • Address diverse needs.

  • Alternate materials and/or assistive technology

  • Alternate ways to demonstrate learning.

  • Change method of presentation

  • Instruction on functional skills

  • Instructional adaptations (pre-teaching, repeating directions,)

  • Modify curricular goals.

  • Test modification

  • Use research based supplementary materials.

  • Using reader or scribe services

Address Physical Environment

  • Adapt sensory input (light, sound, smell)

  • Adaptive equipment (pen, computer, paper, desk)

  • Environmental Aids (acoustics, heating, cooling, ventilation)

  • Individualized desk, chair, etc. – supportive chairs

  • Physical arrangement in environments - seating arrangements

  • Structural Aids (e.g., wheelchair accessibility, trays, grab bars)

Address Social-Behavioral activities

  • Aide support with explicit role for language, reinforcement, and modeling

  • Appropriate Models

  • Cooperative learning strategies

  • Counseling supports

  • Individualized Positive Behavior Support Plans

  • Modification of rules and expectations

  • Peer supports (facilitating friendships)

  • Reduce exposure to disruptive or interfering behavior

  • Social skills and cognition research-based curriculum instruction

Adaptations

  • Complexity of the task / chunking

  • Demonstration of knowledge / speech to text/ extended time / scribe

  • Independence

  • Motivation / behavioral contract

  • Procedures / prompts /cues

  • Resources/ book share / software /graphic organizer

  • Size of task

  • Time allotted.

Goals

All goals must have baselines or present levels of performance.

Specific Areas of Need - Academic, Developmental, and Functional Skill Sets that are evaluated with independent baselines and without prompts.

Measurable and Meaningful Data Collection Which means data on the actual skill that is needing remediation, not other things.

Attainable Advancement That Is Time-Bound Which does not underestimate the ability to progress.

Relevant to all 5 types of Curriculums

  • General/Core or Modified Core Curriculum

  • Expanded/Functional Curriculum

  • Extracurricular Curriculum

  • Assistive Technology Curriculum and

  • Behavioral Curriculum

Teachable via Instructional Accommodations and Strategies of SDIs and SAS

  • SAS—Supplementary Aids and Services - specific materials, resources, aids, strategies or services to gain access to the general education curriculum

  • SDIs—Specially Designed Instruction – unique instruction or assessments needed for instruction

Evaluation of Data - Reviewed by Team with Readjustment to the IEP

  • If you don’t change the IEP you will keep doing the same thing over and over again expecting different results!

Research/Evidence-Based Methods Used

  • So eclectic unproven methods are not used like the Whole Language Approach to reading that was an educational fad base on theory and no research that was catastrophic to scholars and created regression.

Samples

What ABA Needs, SDIs, and Goals could look like.

This does not have to be an ABA or VB classroom and just so you can get a taste of what should be in the Individualized Education Program (IEP).


EDUCATIONAL NEEDS RELATED TO STUDENT'S DISABILITY:

ACADEMIC, DEVELOPMENTAL, AND FUNCTIONAL

Prepositions

Pronouns

Past Tense

Who, What, Where questions

Category/Class

Describing

Direction following

Waiting

Asking for help

Comparing numbers

Count to 100

Spelling

Repeating Sentences

Reciprocate, Initiate, and make close statements.

Calendar

Addition and Subtraction

Independent Play Skills

Peer Skills (Social Skills)

Attention to tasks.

Prompt Dependency

Generalization of skills across environment(s)

Behavior: noncompliance, task avoidance

PT NEEDS:

Single leg skills such as hopping.

Accuracy and quality of throwing and catching with a small ball.

Combination Movements

Locomotor Skill(s): skipping.

Spatial Awareness: Safety Skills

Ball Skills: Rolling, Tossing, Catching

OT NEEDS

Independence in pencil grasp

Self-care skills (clothing fasteners; tying shoelaces; managing containers and eating utensils; blowing nose with tissue)

Handwriting

Sensory processing skills

SPEECH NEEDS

answering who, what, where questions

grammar skills

social communication regarding greeting, responding, and closing communicative attempts.

joint attention

basic language concepts

Vocabulary skills regarding describing features.

Expressive and Pragmatic Language

SOME SAMPLE GOALS

(Baselines to be included, prompt hierarchy for all data to be documented)

  • During instructional time in the Autism classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions Scholar will receptively and expressively identify 12 prepositions (in, on, under, in front, next to, behind, into, back, besides, top, bottom, over) using objects, his body and pictures for 100% of the time for 3 consecutive data collection days in each environment (Autism classroom, Speech Therapy and home).

  • During instructional time in the Autism classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions Scholar will receptively and expressively identify 5 pronouns (he, she, they, him, her) with pictures and then generalize these pronouns into the natural environment 100% of the time over 3 consecutive data collection days in each environment (Autism classroom, Speech Therapy and home).

  • During instruction in the Autism classroom and at home Scholar will independently engage with 15 different work tasks (worksheet) or skill play manipulatives (puzzle, tangrams, sequencing, etc.) for 5 minutes 100% of the time over three consecutive data collection days in both environments.

  • During instructional time in the Autism classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions Scholar will demonstrate understanding who, what, and where questions 100% of the time over three consecutive data collection days in each environment (Autism classroom, Speech Therapy and home).

  • Scholar will answer 25 rote who questions, 25 rote what questions, and 25 rote where questions each with 100% mastery.

  • During instructional time in the Autism classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions Scholar will demonstrate expressive understanding of 15 regular and irregular past tense verbs during 1:1 instruction and in the natural environment 100% of the time for 3 consecutive data collection days in each environment (Autism classroom, Speech Therapy and home).

  • During instructional time in the Autism classroom and home program sessions, Scholar will be able to spell 100 sight words aloud and on paper when given the word orally 100% of the time over three consecutive data collection days in each environment (Autism classroom and home).

  • During instruction in the Autism classroom Scholar will count from 1-100 with 100% accuracy over three consecutive data collection days.

  • During instruction in the Autism classroom Scholar will identify the day, month, date, year and season with 100% mastery (5pts. out of a possible 5 pts.) on 5 days of consecutive data collection.

  • During instruction in the Autism classroom Scholar will add and subtract numbers up to 20 at least 85% of the time over three consecutive data collection days.

  • During instruction in the Autism classroom Scholar will compare numbers (greater than, less than, equal to) up to 20 85% of the time over three consecutive data collection days.

  • During 1:1 instruction in the Autism classroom and Speech Therapy classroom, Scholar will exactly repeat 10-word sentences that include pronouns, adverbs, adjectives, verb tenses, contractions, and prepositions with 100% accuracy over 3 consecutive data collection days in each environment (Autism classroom, Speech Therapy and home).

  • Scholar will name 5 items in 25 different categories with 100% mastery.

  • During instructional time in the Autism classroom and Speech Therapy Sessions when presented with 5 novel pictures, Scholar will describe the picture using a carrier phrase, descriptor word, feature, function, and class 100% of the time over 3 consecutive data collection days.

  • During instruction time in the Autism classroom Scholar will independently (request) for help, objects, and activities by making eye contact or referencing the item AND using at least 3-word sentences 100% of the time over 3 consecutive data collection days.

  • During instruction in the Autism classroom, when given a variety of one-step direction(s) comprised of a known skill (at least 5 per day), Scholar will be able to follow the direction within 30 seconds with 85% accuracy over 3 out 3 consecutive data collection days, sustained over 3 months.

  • Scholar will independently use a tripod grasp on writing utensils for 4 minutes during writing and drawing tasks for 3 consecutive observations as measured once monthly.

  • While using a pencil without a pencil grip and writing on 5/8” lined paper with a dashed midline, Scholar will write the numbers 1-10 and his first name and last name scoring 2/2 points on the writing checklist for 3 consecutive observations as measured once per month.

  • While using a pencil without a pencil grip and writing on 5/8” lined paper with a dashed midline, Scholar will copy a 3-to-4-word sentence and achieve 3/3 points on the writing checklist for 3 consecutive observations as measured once per month.

  • Behavior: During instruction in the Autism classroom, when given a variety of one-step direction(s) comprised of a known skill (at least 5 per day), Scholar will be able to follow the direction within 30 seconds with 85% accuracy over 3 out 3 consecutive data collection days, sustained over 3 months.

INTRO /BASIC SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION FOR CLASSROOM

Sample of Specially Designed Instruction

The guidelines for instruction provided to Scholar includes Individualized instructional program using a research based systematic, highly consistent, intensive, and structured one to one training using Skinner's scientific principles of learning and behavioral motivation to effectively teach a scholar to use language not just for labeling but rather for communication by focusing on the consequences of what they do and how it affects what they learn and do in the future. Improved behaviors are demonstrated through reliable relationships between procedures used and the changes in scholar's behavior using positive reinforcement in order to increase desired behaviors, social interactions and decreased prompts to independence.

Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills, Revised (ABLLS-R) data and Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) data will be used to modify the program goals that address scholar's unique needs, potential and progress rates. The ABLLS-R, VB-MAPP will be on-going updated every 4 months and Assessment of Functional Living Skills (AFLS) and barriers assessment will be updated at least annually for Scholar. Programming will use spiraling review of a functional AFLS and behavioral skill curriculum (VB Mapp and ABLLS-R) individualized to the scholar's unique needs and modified by BCBA based on functional assessments and observations each month.

Programming to be overseen by a BCBA who has experience in VB program development and fidelity checks with teaching scholars with limited verbal ability to communicate, to create and develop connections between a word and its meaning by using echoics, mands, tacts, intra-verbals, errorless learning, pairing protocols, pivotal response training, video modeling, discrete trial training, natural environment training with integrated and coordinated community and across environment reinforcement.

BCBA will provide frequent weekly and monthly analysis using the coordinated use of monthly functional assessments, interviews, and direct observations.

Additional goal analysis and program analysis supervision and coordination will be provided by a BCBA to promoted flexible thinking, personal relationship development, social connections and interactions, emotional bonds, and shared experiences through the use of emotional referencing, social coordination, declarative language, flexible thinking, perspective taking, theory of mind skills, joint attention, relational information processing, foresight and hindsight through the development of developmentally appropriate objectives to everyday situations and language development.

Assistive technology (ie: Ipad, flipcam, smart board) daily can be used for the following tasks: pre-teaching concepts, reinforcing concepts previously taught, video modeling (should include labeling of skill with instruction), and task analysis. This should occur in both the general education classroom and special education classroom.

When scholar is included in daily structured and non-structured settings his inclusion should be facilitated to interact with peers and actively participate by his 1:1 assistant or special or general education teacher, with participation data being taken during inclusion.

Scholar will participate in a daily sensory diet created by the Occupational Therapist to improve his sensory processing needs. This sensory diet will be revised twice a month and sent home according to his needs, along with a progress note including OT observations and input from the team. Sensory diet supplies will travel with scholar to all rooms and activities. The following strategies will always be included in the sensory diet which is reviewed and up-dated if necessary, twice per month:

  • Sensory warm-up activities will be done before engaging in sustained tasks.

  • Provide opportunities for therapeutic touching (different textures and objects) during the day.

  • Provide breaks for movement during the school day and provide with natural opportunities for movement while completing seatwork.

During 1:1 instruction scholar will receive high levels of reinforcement, decreased verbal and auditory distractions that are antecedents to scholar's behaviors. Preferred items should be used as reinforcers. Limit visual distractions for scholar.

Data sheets for across on-going environments to be developed by BCBA in consult with team. Daily data will be collected on direction following by aides and teachers. Data will be graphed monthly and contain an anecdotal summary of progress.

Goals will require scholar to work to independent mastery of 85% in 3 environments prior to progressing to next concept or skill (school: special education setting & inclusive setting, home,). Determination of mastery may also include alternative presentations of material or skill (i.e. horizontal vs. vertical) Determination of mastery should not be assessed using pattern presentations.

Level of prompts (verbal, physical, visual) as well as frequency will be recorded on all data points for progress monitoring on all goals. Daily prompt hierarchy using textual prompts, model/visual, gestural, verbal/non specified, verbal cues, and physical prompts. only as necessary or needed, to elicit target behaviors will be used with systematic fade-out and documented in present levels of independence for his goals/objectives.

Mastered skills are forwarded to home programing for reinforcement and generalization in N.E.T. across at least 2 individuals.

Program (goal and data) books are to be maintained in the classroom and home with the next three objectives listed.

Student benefits from daily generalization with multiple exemplars across stimuli, people, and settings

Skills should be supplemented daily with novel materials to assess application and generalization of skills.

Monthly team meetings include a brief summary of progress towards goals by BCBA, program modifications, concerns and future training needs; additional training hours for all IEP team members to be determined by the team on a monthly basis.

BCBA hours to include on-going curriculum modifications, behavioral data analysis, program implementation fidelity checks, monthly team meetings, monthly BCBA reports, developing & implementing function-focused interventions, ensuring generalization of skills and transference of skills to the home program for reinforcement in the community setting, updating teaching material/curriculum and providing modeling of new programs and behavioral interventions.

The teacher will provide a daily limited number of short directions rather than lengthy instructions, since scholar is most successful with highly structured short assignments.

Answers provided by scholar during instructional and assessment periods do not need to be expressive, answers given using non-verbal (i.e., receptive - pointing or gesture) should be accepted.

Visual schedule and task analysis should be used during instructional sessions. Scholar benefits from use of daily visual checklist of task order and/or expectations to aid in teaching specific skills.

Scholar benefits from using daily integrated multi-modality instruction including modeling, choices explicit instruction, repetition, rephrasing, visual cues, graphic organizers, chunking of material, wait time, use of manipulatives and memory strategies.

Scholar will be given positive on-going reinforcement for all joint attention attempts (eye contact, body toward speaker, asking for a break etc.) throughout the school and by all staff members.

Scholar will be monitored at all times due to lack of socialization skills and safety issues.

Teacher and Therapists will provide weekly communication sheet in regard to progress monitoring and recommendations for reinforcement at home of mastered items/skills to the parents.

Adults will model and encourage scholar daily to imitate functional communication (i.e. ask to go see something instead of just eloping or grabbing from the area). Facilitate scholar's use of appropriate language when with peers in hallway, playground etc., and also when requesting attention.

BCBA consult to VB program at school

  • (4 hours – to be individualized) BCBA supervision hours per week for in-classroom support (AS/VB classroom and across environments)

  • The BCBA will provide initial/ongoing pairing and training with all school personnel who have interactions with scholar on a regular basis. (training hours to be determined)

  • The Behavior Specialist will do observations and consult with IEP team regarding behavior plan, rate of progress toward goals, classroom strategies and behavior strategies used - across all environments (related service providers, regular education teachers, aids). (Consult hours to be determined)

Positive Behavior Supports:

  1. Task selection will vary between easy and difficult demands. Mix and vary skills daily with interspersed 80% easy tasks (acquired skills) with 20% difficult tasks (new skills). Increase response effort but continue to intersperse with a high percentage of review targets. Gradually increase ratio of new targets.

  2. Scholar will be given forced choices when appropriate and feasible to increase a sense of independence.

  3. Breaks will be provided frequently. Scholar will be made aware of when breaks will occur and how long the break will last. Use timers if necessary.

  4. Scholar will be taught to use his words to ask for a break and to request help with challenging activities (DRA- Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior).

  5. When transitioning and during difficult tasks, praise scholar and provide a reinforcer for following directions and attempting difficult tasks (DRO- Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior).

  6. Make use of a visual reinforcer (i.e., star chart or tally board) in the regular education classroom and direct instruction.

  7. Use If…then contingencies (but not for the DRO).

  8. Use Visual cues vs verbal cues whenever possible.

  9. Conduct frequent preference assessments to establish reinforcers to be used during teaching time.

  10. Confirm skills are mastered and fluent before moving to the next skill.

  11. Reinforce throughout the day ANY time the behavior does not occur (DRL) starting with a short interval of time. May use a timer as a reminder.

Teacher(s) will visually limit, as needed, the number of problems per page.

Strategies for Direct Instruction:

  1. Ask scholar what he would like to work for after his work is completed.

  2. Determine the number of responses and use a visual counter (stars) of responses the scholar will need to earn to receive his reinforcement.

  3. Show scholar the reinforcer he will be receiving during the instruction time.

  4. Deliver the reinforcer when scholar is compliant (sitting nicely, answers a question, etc.) DO NOT deliver a reinforcer after scholar calms from behavior. Use only verbal praise at that time. If you feel a reinforcer is necessary, give scholar another direction to follow. (ex: hands on table) You may then deliver the reinforcer.

  5. Make use of fast paced instruction when feasible with incorporated sensory reinforcement.

Strategies for Transitioning:

  1. Allow scholar to transition while holding a preferred item. Say, "when you walk in the hall you can hold these".

  2. Use a DRO in the hallway with edibles. (Great walking! Here’s a _______)

  3. A few seconds before and when you arrive at destination say "When we get to Miss ___’s room ______ goes in a bag, and you get a _______."

Strategies for Regular Education Classroom:

  1. When using a reinforcer for behavior (DRO - differential reinforcer of other behavior), it should be delivered at moments when you “catch”/ notice him doing the right thing not always as a promise to entice him. ie..."Great! I love that coloring! (Give him a reinforcer)"Say this as opposed to "When you finish coloring you can have a _______".

Strategies to Teach New Behavior:

  1. When scholar is given a direction and does not follow the direction or ask for help, repeat the direction one more time.

  2. If scholar does not follow the direction the second time, prompt him to request help.

  3. If scholar does not follow the direction or ask for help, begin to physically guide him to complete the task.

  4. Provide limited eye contact.

  5. DO NOT respond to any of scholar’s statements, scripting, behavior, or attempts at engagement during this time until task completion.

  6. DO NOT talk to scholar or negotiate with scholar.

  7. Even if scholar continues to engage in non-compliant behavior, continue to physically prompt him through the task without making eye contact or conversation.

  8. Do not allow scholar to have access to other reinforcing items during this time.

  9. Praise compliance and completion only after scholar has completed the task. Do not provide a reinforcer. Prompt scholar to ask for a break if appropriate.

ABA Home Service Program (Hours to be determined)

Direct Therapy at home: __ hours a week of ABA therapy at home.

ABA Consultation with BCBA for ___ hours per month to take place at home and school.

BCBA behavioral training up to 6 hours for new staff at home or at school

Monthly Team meetings an additional 2 hours per month for up to 3 therapists and the BCBA (maximum of 8 hours per month).

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